SOME BASIC SPANISH  (also, here is a link to a free web-based translation program that seems pretty handy- http://world.altavista.com/, plus we recently discovered an on-line language learning program at www.bbc.co.uk/languages/

 

 INTRODUCTION

 

Spanish is the fourth most-spoken language in the world. Originating in Spain, and spoken by most residents there, it is also spoken in Mexico and all of Central and South America except Brazil, Guyana and Surinam. Spanish is also spoken in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and other Caribbean islands. Spanish is a first language for many people in the United States, especially in California, Texas, South Florida, and the Southwest. A romance language, Spanish is closely related to particularly Portuguese, to Italian, and to some extent to French. English and Spanish share approximately one third of the same words, although the pronunciation tends to be very different.

 

A little advice: DO NOT listen to anyone who tells you Spanish is an “easy” language to learn.  Learning another language, assuming you are not of pre-school age, is DIFFICULTDO NOT become discouraged because it’s easy for everyone else…because IT’S NOT!!

 

A BIT ABOUT GRAMMAR BEFORE YOU BEGIN

 

Spanish nouns have genders. Most words applied to persons have natural gender: masculine like hombre ("male person") or feminine, like mujer ("female person"). The gender of some animals, things, and some words applied to persons doesn't follow any rule: they have grammatical gender. Casa (house), rana (frog), and visita (visitor) are of the feminine gender. Árbol (tree), sapo (toad) and genio (genius) are of the masculine gender. Invitado, invitada (guest) and mono, mona (monkey) have natural gender. Fortunately, the gender of a noun is usually (but not always) indicated by the last letter of the word; -o indicates masculine nouns, and -a indicates feminine nouns.

 

Adjectives also have gender and number. Like nouns, -o usually indicates the masculine form of the adjective, and -a indicates the feminine form. Adding an -s at the end of an adjective or noun makes it plural. Adjectives need to match the noun they describe in both gender and number. For example, borracho "drunk", when modifying las mujeres ("the women"), makes las mujeres borrachas. In this guide, where genders of nouns or adjectives comes up, we use the form "o/a" to differentiate. It should be clear from context when to use the feminine and when to use the masculine form.

 

PRONUNCIATION

 

Spanish spelling has the pleasant characteristic of being more or less phonetic. This means that if you know how to pronounce the letters of a word, it's relatively easy to sound out the word itself. Besides having a very small number of vowel sounds and a high predictablity of exactly what sound is represented by each letter, Spanish has a very clear set of rules about where a stress normally falls, and exceptions are noted with an "acute accent mark" ("´") over the vowel of the stressed syllable. Normally, words that end in a vowel or in "n" or "s" have the stress on the next-to-last syllable; all other words without an explicit accent mark are stressed on the final syllable. There are no "secondary stresses" within words.

 

VOWELS

 

a like 'a' in "art": casa

e like the first component of the diphthong 'ay' in "day" (este).

Since Spanish also has a diphthong 'ay', as in rey (see "ei"

below) you may consider to pronounce Spanish 'e' like the 'e' in

"get"

i like 'ee' in "see" or "deed"

o like the first component of the diphthong 'ow' in "low". The

vowel in "caught" will be equally understood, unless you

pronounce it like "cot". Anyway, the full diphthong "ow" does

not occur in Spanish, so you don't have to worry about

pronouncing clipped enough

u like 'oo' in "hoop"

 

DIPHTHONGS (2 vowels in a row)

 

ai, ay like 'eye': baile

au like 'ow' in 'cow': causa

ei, ey like 'ay' in "say": reina, rey

eu like 'yu' in "euro"

ia like 'ya' in 'Kenya': piano

ie like 'ye' in "yes": pie

io like 'yo': dio

iu like 'ew' in few: ciudad

oi, oy like 'oy' in "boy": soy

ou like 'ou' in "though" - Present only in foreign words: show

ua like 'wa' in "wallet": cuatro

ue like 'we' in "well": puedo

ui, uy like 'wi' in "winter": ruido

ui like 'ooy': cuido

uo like "wa" in "water": averiguo

 

CONSONANTS

 

b like 'b' in "bed": boca

c when followed by 'e' or 'i', like 'c' in "cell" (Latin America) or

'th' in "thin" (Spain): cine; otherwise like 'k' in "kid": calle,

doctor

ch like 'ch' in "touch": muchacho

d like 'd' in "dog": dedo

f like 'f' in "fine": faro

g when followed by 'e' or 'i' like 'ch' in "loch" (general = hai-naiSpanish

RAHL), otherwise like "g" in "go" (gato). In the clusters "gue"

and "gui", the "u" is silent (guitarra), unless it bears a diaeresis,as in "güe" and "güi" (pedigüeño)gu, gü like 'Gu' in McGuire or 'w' in "wire" (agua, agüita)

h silent: hora

j like 'ch' in "loch": jabón

k like 'c' in "cat": kilo

l like 'l' in "love": lápiz

ll like 'y' in "yield" (Latin America) or the 'ly' sound in "million" (Spain): lluvia

m like 'm' in "mother": mano

n like 'n' in "nice", and like 'n' in "anchor": noche, ancla

ñ like 'ny' in "canyon": cañón, piñata

p like 'p' in "pig": perro

q like 'q' in "quiche" (always with a silent "u"): queso, pronounced KAY-so

r, rr Spanish has two "r" sounds which are very different form their

counterparts in most languages, and certainly very different

from the English. As a result most English speakers lisp their r's

when they come to Spanish. However, if you use your native

pronunciation it's unlikely that people understand cerro (hill)

when youn meant cero (zero), and they may not understand you

at all. Single flap r (ere): Always written "r", and never occurs at the

beginning of the word, this sound is created by putting the tip

of the tongue up against where the front of the roof of the

mouth meets the upper teeth, very similar to the action English

speakers make to pronounce l or t. This is not widely taught but

can be practiced by anyone. Particular care should be taken

when r appears after a consonant, eg in the word otro (other). tr

is a particular sound in English, which if you use in Spanish

will be an incomprehensible list. One must separate the two

sounds out, as in wha(t) (r) rubbish, clicking the r properly

rolled r (erre) Written "r" at the beginning of the word or after "l" "n" or "s"

(ropa, enredo). Written "rr" between vowels (cerro). It's a

multiply vibrating sound. Whereas all English can learn to tap

out a single r it seems that many adult non-Spanish speakers

simply do not have the ability to vibrate the tongue in the way

needed to pronounce rr

s like 'ss' in "hiss": sopa

t like 't' in "top": tapa

v like 'b' in "bed": vaca, pronounced BAH-kah

w like 'w' in "weight" in English words, whisky (pronounced

WEESS-kee). Like 'b' in "bed" in Germanic words

x like 'x' in "sex" (sexo). Like 'ss' in "hiss" at beginning of a word

(xilófono). Like 'ch' in "loch" in the words México, mexicano,

Oaxaca, and oaxaqueño

y like 'y' in "yes": payaso. Like 'y' in "boy": hoy

z like 's' in "supper" (Latin America), like 'th' in "thin" (Spain):

zorro. See c above

 

ACCENTS AND STRESS WHEN SPEAKING

 

Word stress can affect the meaning of the word and generally follows

these rules:

If a word is marked with an accent, then that syllable receives

the stress.

o Additionally, if the accent marks a dipthong a syllable break

occurs between the two vowels of the dipthong.

If a word is NOT marked with an accent, then

1. if the word ends in a consonant other than N or S, the stress

occurs on the last syllable.

2. if the word ends in a vowel, N or S, the stress occurs on the next

to last syllable.

Examples:

Spanish Phrase Book – Page 6

círculo (SEER-koo-loh) → circle

circulo (seer-KOO-loh) → I circulate

circuló (seer-koo-LOH) → (s)he/it circulated

estás (ehss-TAHSS) → you are

estas (EHSS-tahss) → these

origen (oh-REE-hehn) → origin

orígenes (oh-REE-hehn-ehss) → origins

ciudad (syew-DAHD) → city

ciudades (syew-DAH-dehss) → cities

An accent can also be used to differentiate between words that are

pronounced the same but have different meanings:

si → if tu → your mi → my el

the

→ yes → you → me él → he

 

COMMON EVERYDAY PHRASES

 

Hello (informal).

Hola. (OH-lah). For the formal equivalent of hola see good

morning, good afternoon, good evening, below.

How are you?

¿Cómo estás? (KOH-moh ehss-TAHSS?) (informal); ¿Cómo está

usted? (KOH-mo ehss-TAH oo-stehd?) (formal)

Fine, thank you.

Muy bien, gracias. (mooey BYEHN, GRAH-syahss)

What is your name?

¿Cómo te llamas? (KOH-moh tay YAH-mahss?) (informal);

¿Cómo se llama usted? (KOH-mo say YAH-mah ooss-TAID?) (formal)

My name is ______ .

Me llamo ______ . (may YAH-moh _____ .)

Nice to meet you.

Encantado/a. (EHN-kahn-TAH-doh)

Please.

Por favor. (POHR fah-BOHR)

Thank you.

Gracias. (GRAH-SYAHSS)

You're welcome.

De nada. (day NAH-dah)

Yes.

Sí. (SEE)

No.

No. (NOH)

Excuse me. (getting attention)

Disculpe. (dees-KOOL-pay)

Excuse me. (begging pardon)

Perdón. (pair-DOHN)

I'm sorry.

Lo siento. (loh SYEHN-toh)

Goodbye

Adiós. (ah-DYOHSS)

Goodbye (informal)

Hasta luego. (AH-stah LWAY-goh)

I can't speak Spanish [well].

No hablo español [bien]. (noh AH-blow EHS-pahn-YOL [BYEHN])

Do you speak English?

¿Hablas inglés? (AH-blahss een-GLAYSS?) (informal); ¿Habla

usted inglés? (AH-blah oos-TAID een-GLAYSS?)

Is there someone here who speaks English?

¿Hay alguien que hable inglés? (eye ahl-GYEN kay AH-blay een-

GLAYSS?)

Help!

Ayuda! (ah-YOU-dah!); Socorro! (soh-COH-row!)

Good morning.

Buenos días. (BWAY-nohss DEE-ahss)

Good afternoon.

Buenas tardes. (BWAY-nahss TAR-dayss)

Good evening (when it's dark)

Buenas noches. (BWAY-nahss NOH-chayss)

Good night.

Buenas noches. (BWAY-nas NOH-chayss)

I don't understand.

No entiendo. (noh ehn-TYEHN-doh)

Where is the toilet?

¿Dónde está el baño? (DOHN-day ehss-TAH ehl BAHN-yoh?)

 

ENCOUNTERING PROBLEMS PHRASES

 

Leave me alone.

Déjame en paz. (DAY-hah-may en PASS)

Don't touch me!

¡No me toques! (noh may TOH-kayss!)

I'll call the police.

Llamaré a la policía. (yah-mah-RAY ah lah po-lee-SEE-ah)

Police!

Policía! (poh-lee-SEE-ah!)

Stop! Thief!

¡Alto, al ladrón! (AHL-toh ahl lah-DROAN!)

I need help.

Necesito ayuda. (ne-say-SEE-toh ah-YOU-dah)

It's an emergency.

Es una emergencia. (ayss oo-nah AY-mayr-HEN-syah)

I'm lost.

Estoy perdido/a (ay-STOY payr-DEE-doh/dah)

I lost my purse/handbag.

Perdí mi bolsa/bolso/cartera. (payr-DEE mee BOHL-sa / BOHL-so

/ cahr-TAY-rah)

I lost my wallet.

Perdí mi cartera/billetera. (payr-DEE mee BOHLcahr-TAY-rah /

bee-yay-TAY-rah; the last may also be said as beel-yay-TAY-rah)

I'm sick.

Estoy enfermo/a. (ay-STOY ayn-FAYR-moh/mah)

I've been injured.

Estoy herido/a. (ay-STOY ay-REE-doh/dah)

I need a doctor.

Necesito un doctor. (nay-say-SEE-toh OON dohk-TOHR)

Can I use your phone?

¿Puedo usar su teléfono? (PWAY-doh oo-SAHR soo tay-LAY-fohnoh?)

 

SAYING NUMBERS

 

1 uno/a (OO-noh)

2 dos (doss)

3 tres (tress)

4 cuatro (KWA-tro)

5 cinco (SEEN-ko)

6 seis (SAISS)

7 siete (SYE-te)

8 ocho (O-cho)

9 nueve (NWAI-be)

10 diez (DYESS)

11 once (OHN-say)

12 doce (DOH-say)

13 trece (TRAY-say)

14 catorce (kah-TOHR-say)

15 quince (KEEN-say)

16 dieciseis (DYEESS-ee-SAYSS)

17 diecisiete (DYEESS-ee-SYAY-tay)

18 dieciocho (DYEESS-ee-OH-choh)

19 diecinueve (DYEESS-ee-NWAY-bay)

20 veinte (BAYN-tay)

21 veintiuno (BAYN-TYOO-noh)

22 veintidos (BAYN-tee-DOHSS)

23 veintitres (BAYN-tee-TRAYSS)

30 treinta (TRAYN-tah)

40 cuarenta (kwah-RAYN-tah)

50 cincuenta (seen-KWAYN-tah)

60 sesenta (say-SAYN-tah)

70 setenta (say-TAYN-tah)

80 ochenta (oh-CHAYN-tah)

90 noventa (noh-BAYN-tah)

100 cien (syehn)

200 doscientos (dos-SYEHN-tos)

300 trescientos (tres-SYEHN-tos)

500 quinientos (kee-NYEHN-tos)

1000 mil (MEEL)

2000 dos mil (dohss MEEL)

Spanish Phrase Book – Page 11

1,000,000 un millón (oon mee-YOHN)

half medio (MAY-dyoh)

less menos (MAY-nohss)

more más (MAHSS)

 

BASIC TIME TABLE

 

now ahora (ah-OH-rah)

later después (day-SPWAYSS)

before antes (ahn-TAYSS)

morning mañana (mah-NYAH-nah)

afternoon tarde (TAHR-day)

night noche (NOH-chay)

 

TELLING TIME

 

one o'clock AM la una de la madrugada; la una de la mañana (lah OOHnah

day lah mah-drooh-GAH dah; lah OOH-nah day lah mahn-YAH-nah)

two o'clock AM las dos de la madrugada; las dos de la mañana (lahss

DOHSS day lah mah-drooh-GAH dah; lahss DOHSS day lah mahn-YAH-nah)

ten o'clock AM las diez de la mañana (lahss dee-AYSS day lah mahn-

YAH-nah)

noon mediodía; las doce de la mañana (lahss DOH-say day

lah mahn-YAH-nah)

one o'clock PM la una de la tarde (lah OOH-nah day lah TAHR-day)

two o'clock PM las dos de la tarde (lahss DOHSS day lah TAHR-day)

ten o'clock PM las diez de la noche (lahss dee-AYSS day lah NOHchay)

midnight medianoche; las doce de la noche (may-dee-yah-NOHchay;

lahss DOH-say day lah NOH-chay)

 

HELPFUL TIPS WHEN WRITING TIME

 

When speaking, times are given in AM/PM form (but saying de la

mañana (morning), de la tarde (afternoon), de la noche (evening/night)

or de la madrugada (late night) to distinguish between AM and PM. On

the other hand, in most countries times are rendered in 24-hour format,

with a colon separating hours and minutes:

9 o'clock AM

nueve de la mañana (spoken: noo-WEH-vay day la mahn-YAHnah),

9:00 (written)

12:30 PM

doce y media de la mañana (spoken: DOH-say ee MAY-dee-yah

day la mahn-YAH-nah), 12:30 (written)

1 o'clock PM

una de la tarde (spoken: OOH-nah day lah TAHR-day), 13:00

(written)

10 o'clock PM

diez de la noche (spoken: dee-AYSS day la NOH-chay), 22:00

(written)

2 o'clock AM

dos de la madrugada or dos de la mañana (spoken: DOHSS day

la mah-drooh-GAH-dah or DOHSS day la mahn-YAH-nah), 2:00

(written)

 

TIME DURATION

 

__ minute(s) __ minuto(s) (mee-NOOH-toh(ss))

__ hour(s) __ hora(s) (OHR-ah(ss))

__ day(s) __ día(s) (DEE-aah(ss))

__ week(s) __ semana(s) (say-MAH-nah(ss))

__ month(s) __ mes(es) (MAYSS-(ayss))

__ year(s) __ año(s) (AH-nyoh(ss))

 

 

TIME DURATION: DAYS

 

today hoy (OY)

yesterday ayer(I-air)

tomorrow mañana (surely you know how to pronounce this word:

mahn-YAH-nah)

this week esta semana (EHS-tah say-MAH-nah)

last week la semana pasada (lah say-MAH-nah pah-SAH-dah)

next week la semana que viene (lah say-MAH-nah kay vee-AYNay)

Monday lunes (LOOH-nayss) - Week Begins On This Day

Tuesday martes (MAHR-tayss)

Wednesday miércoles (mee-AIR-coh-layss)

Thursday jueves (WHAY-vayss)

Friday viernes (vee-AIR-nayss)

Saturday sábado (SAH-bah-doh)

Sunday domingo (doh-MEEN-goh)

 

TIME DURATION: MONTHS

 

January enero (eh-NEH-ro)

February febrero (feh-BREH-ro)

March marzo (MAR-zo)

April abril (ah-BRIL)

May mayo (MAY-o)

June junio (HOO-nio)

July julio (HOO-lio)

August agosto (ah-GO-sto)

September septiembre/setiembre (se-TEE-YEM-bray)

October octubre (ok-TOO-brey)

November noviembre (no-VEE-YEM-bray)

December diciembre (dee-CEE-YEM-bray)

 

HELPFUL TIPS WHEN WRITING DATES

 

Dates are given in day-month-year form. All spoken and written, long

and short forms follow this pattern:

October 3rd, 2003

3 de octubre de 2003

May 21st, 1997

21 de mayo de 1997

Day-month constructions (4 de julio, for example) are not usually

abbreviated. In the rare cases than an abbreviation is used, the number

of the month is not used, but its initial letter is. Usual examples are:

 

23-F

23 de febrero, date of a failed coup d'êtat in Spain (1981)

11-S

11 de septiembre, date of the attack to the Twin Towers (2001)

(and of the Chilean coup in 1973).

 

SAYING COLORS

 

black negro (NAY-groh)

white blanco (BLAHN-koh)

gray gris (GREESS)

red rojo (ROH-hoh)

blue azul (ah-SOOL)

yellow amarillo (AH-mah-REE-yoh)

green verde (BAYR-day)

orange naranja (nar-AHN-hah), anaranjado (ah--nah-ran-HAdo)

purple púrpura (POOR-poor-ah) , morado (moor-AH-do),

violeta (vee-oh-LEH-tah)

brown marrón (mah-RON) , café (kah-FAY), castaño (kah-

STAN-yo)

 

TRANSPORTATION PHRASES

 

BUS AND TRAIN

 

How much is a ticket to _____?

¿Cuánto cuesta un billete/pasaje a _____? (KwAHno kwEHSta

oon beYEHta a ___)

One ticket to _____, please.

Un billete/pasaje a _____, por favor. (Oon beYEHta a _______,

pour FAHvor.)

Where does this train/bus go?

¿A donde va este tren/bus?

Where is the train/bus to _____?

¿Donde está el tren/autobús hacia _____?

Does this train/bus stop in _____?

¿Para este tren/autobús en _____?

When does the train/bus for _____ leave?

¿Cuando marcha/parte/sale el tren/autobús hacia _____ ?

When will this train/bus arrive in _____?

¿Cuando llegará este tren/autobús a _____?

 

 

 

 

ASKING DIRECTIONS

 

How do I get to _____ ?

¿Cómo puedo llegar a _____ ?

...the train station?

...la estación de tren?

...the bus station?

...la estación de autobuses?

...the airport?

...al aeropuerto?

...downtown?

...al centro?

...the youth hostel?

...al albergue juvenil?

...the _____ hotel?

...el hotel _____ ?

...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?

...el consulado de Estados Unidos/Canadiense/Australiano/Británico/?

Where are there a lot of...

¿Dónde hay muchos...

...hotels?

...hoteles?

...restaurants?

...restaurantes/restoranes?

...bars?

...bares?

...sites to see?

...sitios para visitar?

Can you show me on the map?

¿Puede enseñarme/mostrarme en el plano?

street

calle (CAH Yeh)(Mexico) CAH sjeh (Spain)

Turn left.

Gire/doble/da vuelta a la izquierda.

Turn right.

Gire/doble/da vuelta a la derecha.

left

izquierda

right

derecha

straight ahead

recto adelante , sigue derecho

towards the _____

hacia el/la_____

past the _____

pasado el/la _____

before the _____

antes de _____

Watch for the _____.

busque el/la _____.

intersection

intersección , cruce

north

norte

south

sur

east

este

west

oeste

uphill

hacia arriba

downhill

hacia abajo

 

HAILING A TAXI CAB

 

Taxi!

¡Taxi!

Take me to _____, please.

Lléveme a _____, por favor.

How much does it cost to get to _____?

¿Cuanto cuesta ir hasta/a _____?

Take me there, please.

Déjeme ahí, por favor.

 

USEFUL LODGING/ACCOMODATION PHRASES

 

Do you have any rooms available?

¿Hay habitaciones libres?

How much is a room for one person/two people?

¿Cuanto cuesta una habitación para una persona/para dos

personas?

Does the room come with...

¿Tiene la habitación...

...bedsheets?

...sábanas?

...a bathroom?

...baño?

...a telephone?

...teléfono?

...a TV?

...televisión?

May I see the room first?

¿Puedo ver la habitación primero?

Do you have anything quieter?

¿Tiene algo un poco más tranquilo?

...bigger?

...más grande?

...cleaner?

...más limpio?

...cheaper?

...más barato?

OK, I'll take it.

Muy bien, la tomaré.

I will stay for _____ night(s).

Me quedaré ______ noches(s).

Can you suggest other hotels?

¿Puede proponerme otros hoteles?

Do you have a safe?

¿Hay caja fuerte?

...lockers?

...taquillas? ; casilleros

Is breakfast/supper included?

¿El desayuno/la cena va incluido/a?

What time is breakfast/supper?

¿A qué hora es el desayuno/la cena?

Please clean my room.

Por favor, limpie mi habitación.

Can you wake me at _____?

¿Puede despertarme a las _____?

I want to check out.

Quiero dejar el hotel.

 

USEFUL MONEY PHRASES

 

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?

¿Aceptan dólares americanos/australianos/candienses?

Do you accept British pounds?

¿Aceptan libras británicas?

Do you accept euros?

¿Aceptan euros? You don't need this sentence in Spain :-)

Do you accept credit cards?

¿Aceptan tarjeta de crédito?

Can you change money for me?

¿Me puede cambiar dinero?

Where can I get money changed?

¿Dónde puedo cambiar dinero?

Can you change a traveler's check for me?

¿Me puede cambiar cheques de viaje?

Where can I get a traveler's check changed?

¿Dónde me pueden cambiar cheques de viaje?

What is the exchange rate?

¿A cuánto está el cambio?

Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?

¿Dónde hay un cajero automático?

 

DINING/EATING OUT HELPFUL PHRASES/WORDS

 

A table for one person/two people, please.

Una mesa para una persona/dos personas, por favor. (OO-nah

MAY-sah pah-rah OO-nah pehr-SOH-nah / dohss pehr-SOH-nahs

pohr fah- BOHR)

Can I look at the menu, please?

¿Puedo ver el menú, por favor? (PWAY-doh behr ehl meh-NOO

pohr fah-BOHR?)

Can I look in the kitchen?

¿Puedo entrar a la cocina?

Is there a house specialty?

¿Hay alguna especialidad de la casa?

Is there a local specialty?

Spanish Phrase Book – Page 22

¿Hay alguna especialidad regional/de la zona?

I'm a vegetarian.

Soy vegetariano/a.

I don't eat pork.

No como cerdo.

I only eat kosher food.

Sólo como comida kosher. (In a restaurant they will stare at you,

since "kosher" is as Spanish as "empanada" is English.)

Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)

¿Puede poner poca aceite/poca mantequilla/poca grasa?

fixed-price meal

menú del día

a la carte

a la carta

breakfast

desayuno

lunch

comida (Spain, Mexico), almuerzo (South America)

supper

cena (everywhere), comida (South America)

I want _____.

Quiero _____.

I want a dish containing _____.

Quisiera un plato que lleve _____.

chicken

pollo. (POH-yoh)

beef

ternera (tehr-NEH-rah), vacuno (bah-KOO-noh), res (rehss)

fish

pescado (pehs-KAH-doh)

ham

jamón (hah-MOHN)

sausage

salchicha (sahl-CHEE-chah), vienesa (byeh-NAY-sah)

cheese

queso

eggs

huevos

salad

ensalada

(fresh) vegetables

verdura (fresca)

(fresh) fruit

fruta (fresca)

bread

pan

toast

tostada

noodles

fideos

rice

arroz

beans

alubias , porotos, frijoles, judías, habichuelas

May I have a glass of _____?

¿Me puede poner/traer un vaso de _____?

May I have a cup of _____?

¿Me puede poner/traer una taza de _____?

May I have a bottle of _____?

¿Me puede poner/traer una botella de _____?

coffee

café

tea (drink)

juice

zumo , jugo

water

agua

(bubbly) water

agua con gas (if you say agua, is without gas); Agua mineral is

bottled water with gas, unless you ask for agua mineral sin gas.

beer

cerveza

red/white wine

vino tinto/blanco

May I have some _____?

¿Me puede dar un poco de _____?

salt

sal

black pepper

pimienta

butter

mantequilla , manteca (in Argentina)

Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server'):

¡camarero!, ¡mesero! (preferred)

I'm finished.

He acabado, terminé (The first phrase can refer to the finishing of

a completely unrelated physiological activity)

It was delicious.

Estaba delicioso.

Please clear the plates.

Puede llevarse los platos.

The check, please.

La cuenta, por favor. Note that in Chile you must ask for the check. A gringo was known to have waited until 2 in the morning because he was too shy to ask :-)

 

FREQUENTING/VISITING BARS/PUBS PHRASES

 

Do you serve alcohol?

¿Hay alcohol?

Is there table service?

¿Hay servicio a la mesa?

A beer/two beers, please.

Una cerveza/dos cervezas, por favor.

A glass of red/white wine.

Un vaso de vino tinto/blanco.

A pint (of beer)

Una jarra de cerveza (normally it will be half a liter, not really a

pint, but the size is similar); In Chile un schop might be anywhere

from 300cc to one liter.

A glass of draft beer

Un schop (oon SHOHP) (Only in Chile)

_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer).

_____ con _____. In Spain, Cubata is Coke with whiskey

A bottle.

Una botella.

whiskey

whisky (WEESS-key)

vodka

vodka

rum

ron

water

agua

tonic water

(agua) tónica

orange juice

zumo/jugo de naranja

Coke (soda)

Coca-Cola

Do you have any bar snacks?

¿Tiene algo para picar? (In Spain they will give you tapas,

depends a lot from the bar.)

One more, please.

Otro/a ______, por favor.

Another round, please.

Otra ronda, por favor.

When is closing time?

¿Cuándo cierran?

 

USEFUL SHOPPING PHRASES

 

Do you have this in my size?

¿Tiene esto de mi talla?

How much is this?

¿Cuánto cuesta?

That's too expensive.

Es demasiado caro.

Would you take Visa/American dollars?

¿Aceptan Visa/dólares?

expensive

caro

cheap

barato

I can't afford it.

Es muy caro para mí.

I don't want it.

No lo quiero.

You're cheating me.

Me está engañando.

I'm not interested.

No me interesa.

OK, I'll take it.

De acuerdo, me lo llevaré.

Can I have a bag?

¿Tiene una bolsa?

Can you ship it to my country?

¿Puede enviarlo a mi país?

I need...

Necesito...

...batteries.

...pilas.

...cold medicine.

...medicamento para el resfriado.

...condoms.:

...preservativos/condones.

...English-language books.

...libros en inglés.

...English-language magazines.

...revistas en inglés.

...an English-language newspaper.

...un periódico/diario en inglés.

...an English-Spanish dictionary.

...un diccionario inglés-español.

...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)

...medicamento para el dolor (Aspirina, Ibuprofeno).

...a pen.

...un bolígrafo.

...postage stamps.

...sellos/estampillas.

...a postcard.

...una postal.

...a razor.

...una hoja de afeitar.

...shampoo.

...champú.

...stomach medicine.

.... medicamento para el dolor de estómago

...soap.

...jabón.

...sunblock lotion.

...crema solar.

...tampons.

...tampones.

...a toothbrush.

... un cepillo de dientes.

...toothpaste.

...pasta de dientes.

...an umbrella.

...un paraguas.

...writing paper.

...papel para escribir.

 

MORE AUTOMOTIVE/DRIVING PHRASES

 

I want to rent a car.

Quiero alquiler un coche.

Can I get insurance?

¿Puedo contratar un seguro?

STOP (on a street sign)

STOP (Spain), ALTO (México), PARE (Chile, Argentina, Perú)

one way

dirección única

no parking

no aparcar , no estacionar

speed limit

límite de velocidad , velocidad máxima

gas/petrol station

gasolinera , estación de bencina (Chile)

gas/petrol

gasolina , bencina (Chile), nafta (Argentina)

diesel

gasóleo , diesel DEE-sel (Latin America), diésel (DYEH-sel)

(Spain)

 

DEALING WITH POLICE/AUTHORITIES PHRASES

 

I haven't done anything wrong.

No he hecho nada malo. (NOH ay AY-choh NAH-dah MAH-loh)

It was a misunderstanding.

Es un malentendido. (AYSS oon MAHL-ayn-tayn-DEE-doh)

Where are you taking me?

¿Dónde me lleva? (DOHN-day may YAY-bah?)

Am I under arrest?

¿Estoy arrestado/a? (ay-STOY AHRR-ay-STAH-doh/dah?)

I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.

Soy ciudadano estadounidense/australiano/inglés/canadiense.

I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian

embassy/consulate.

Quiero hablar con la embajada/el consulado

estadounidense/australiano/inglés/canadiense.

I want to talk to a lawyer.

Quiero hablar con un abogado. (KYAY-roh ah-BLAHR cohn oon

AH-boh-GAH-doh)

Can I just pay a fine now?

¿Puedo pagar la multa ahora? (PWAY-doh pah-GAR lah MOOLtah

ah-OH-rah?)

 

El Fin (for better or worse, there is sooo much more to learn!)